OSU Extended Campus The ration would contain 77.9% Mix 1 and 22.1% Mix 2. This method was first developed in 1947 by G.B. How much does the diet cost per ton AF? Course Hero is not sponsored or endorsed by any college or university. feed cost per cwt milk? the amounts of Concentrate and Alfalfa Hay. Algebraic method. 10 70) x 100 = 23 %. . However, ME values may be obtained in different ways (faeces collection methods) and thus may be subject to experimental error. If you decide to make use of the factory feeds, no problem. Nutrient contents of ingredients and nutrient requirements must be expressed on the same basis (i.e., dry-matter or as-fed). INTRODUCTION
Now, the computer will take the least cost feed ingredients for formulating least cost ration. endobj
and the two feedstuffs are put on the two left corners along with the protein
=25 AF lbs x 71.9% concentrate = 18.0 AF lbs x 91% DM = 16.4 lbs DM Employment |
Conversely, if you know the as-fed composition of the ration and the dry matter of each ingredient, determine the ration dry-matter composition as shown in Table 2. Mixture. Rice bran: provides carbohydrates and acts as middlings. The value in the middle of the square must be intermediate between the two values that are used on the left side of the square. This number represents the nutritional requirement of an animal for a specific nutrient. Crude protein value on an as-fed basis divided by dry-matter content of the feed times 100 equals the crude-protein content on a dry-matter basis. Expressing computer ration information Open all | Close all Ration analysis Ration balancer Least cost ration Maximum profit ration The farmer may use whole maize (8.23 % DCP) Soya (45 % DCP) Omena (55 % DCP) and maize bran (7 % DCP) Sunflower (35 % DCP). The first step in diet formulation is balancing the crude protein and energy levels. for Students with Disabilities, Department of gain) and calculate cost per pound of gain. Services Y|thq22zP}@|Lp>b ^>%kf1D3?:K/A?eAyd(\Lv2R5m9ptG9\}k_Ev#XEE\k_u9+/u\z7>B/q
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containing different concentrations of a nutrient under, nutrient in the diet must fall between that of the two ingredients, Using example of maize and cotton seed cake above:-. Extension programs are available to all without discrimination. MAT 1033 Sect 3-4 Handout with Answers.pdf, Horizontal Shaft Impactors eg Hazi mag or Nordberg Nordpactor The major issues, 38 472 Questionnaires Questionnaires were administered not only to the local, I skilfully use a range of effective questioning techniques eg Blooms Higher, thought that students were expected to assess the likely outcome of the trial or, bonding a melting b atomic closeness c atomic cleanliness d pressure, no difference in the plastic deformation per unit of stress of the alloy in hard, Service Encounter or Moment of Truth.docx, 13 D Rationale A 4 week movable average means average 4 weeks of the most, Schwarzer et al 2007 Meat production has increased by a whopping threefold, Senior Survey 2021 Directions for Students.pdf, Q h A T h S 1 4 D 2 L T 1005 u S u 1 4 u 0025 2 u 1 u 75 25 247 W AIR 25 C 75 C, Thus far preventive maintenance has been discussed The actual work on the, Clinical Infectious Diseases 2021 Feb 15724703 6 45 2021 PharmCon Social, Determine the womans level of knowledge about contraception and commitment to. Diet Formulation & Feed Ingredients Page 485 These should be decreased depending on degree of feed processing (e.g., chopping, grinding, pelleting, flaking) and hydration (fresh forage, silages, high-moisture grains), if these feed forms are not specified in the table. Acceptability to the animal. Check ration for each nutrient content. Precaution about using the Pearson Square. the square must be intermediate (i.e. 4. If not, then the ration cannot be balanced. Feedstuffs can be compared with one another on the basis cost per unit of protein, energy, or amino acid. <>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 720 540] /Contents 9 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 1>>
=25 AF lbs x 28.1% roughage = 7.0 AF lbs x 35% DM = 2.5 lbs DM Bone meal: Provides minerals like calcium and phosphorus. Tabled values represent an average value that is usually close enough to the actual value to allow accurate feed formulation. In order for the square to work, follow specific directions for its use. Authors: . 108 0 obj
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That means, Average DCP content of low protein group is 11 %, This means, 100 kg of feed will contain 11 kg DCP, Therefore, the amount of DCP supplied through X kg will be, Average DCP content of high protein group is 30%, This means, 100 kg of feed will contain 30 kg DCP, Therefore, the amount of DCP supplied through Y kg will be. If the diet formulation is low in any amino acid, a feedstuff that contains high levels of that amino acid must be added to the diet at the expense of another ingredient. Create your (own) communication model ( see Module 1 -Read Communication Models/Theories as your reference) 2. For this tool to work, one of the feeds used must be higher in ME or CP than the desired level and the other feed must be below the desired level . These considerations will vary from species to species and with the type of pellet being made, and are dealt with in other sections of this manual. Give instructions to the computer regarding the amount of feed ingredients (for example say DM of 20 kg or DCP of 1.5 kg). With the rising cost of poultry feeds, farmers rearing chickens are increasingly finding it difficult to make a profit from poultry keeping. 7. $4%&'()*56789:CDEFGHIJSTUVWXYZcdefghijstuvwxyz ? Calculations for individual shrimp meal and corn were also available for the carp feed mentioned above. Precaution about using the Double Pearson Square. This shows that the crude protein percentage in the above feed formulation is 19.0 % which is suitable for layers. of feed ingredients (also called feedstuff) e.g. This is an animal feed formulation method that can be used as a model for other livestock and poultry species. For example, suppose rice bran and soybean meal were available as feedstuffs
The concentrate is 24% crude protein and 79% TDN. 16% protein in diet. and 68% CP and TDN, respectively. For example, suppose one has wheat middlings and wheat millrun available for a fish diet, which feedstuff would be the least expensive source of energy? At first, it is helpful to use at least three feeds tuffs during the initial balancing of protein and energy levels: one high in protein and high in ME, one low or intermediate in protein and high in ME, and one low or intermediate in both protein and ME. Bean meal: provides proteins, carbohydrates, lipids. (TkU If alfalfa hay is used as an example, the crude protein value is 17 percent on an as-fed basis. Ether extract: Ether extract (EE) shows the crude fat content of the feed. Secondly, using the . Animals have a daily requirement (quantity/day) for energy and nutrients. With all the information organized into the table, it's time to solve for the number of tablets that will minimize your cost using linear programming. Choose variables to represent the quantities involved. The OSU Cowculator is a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet designed to assist cattlemen in making informed decisions associated with beef cow nutrition. The book covers the subject areas of known nutrient requirements, effects of nutrient deficiencies on various aquatic species, nutrient sources, digestibility, and digestive physiology. Once these have been resolved, the next step is to put the information into a formula that will calculate the specific diets. 2. The algebraic method is a collection of several methods used to solve a pair of linear equations with two variables. (AF basis) {yS>gnq6s*n
Y2Use19P}E82S_'{+D$ o >h[aeMzeS_V"Ex$0Cxox[OT\qBP9mE3;%S These are also explained, with examples, in the following guidelines. An alternative, more cost-effective approach, is for you to compound your feed for your chickens. E.g. Next, the protein level of the feed is subtracted from that of
Diagonally, and without regard for sign, subtract middle value from those at the right hand corners and. A key of all relevant molecule structures is shown on the right. A third equation is developed to subtract from. This can be done using the Pearson square method. From the first to the fourth week, the chicks require feed with a DCP content of between 22 to 24 percent. Fish meal: Provides proteins, lipids, and vitamins. Simple Ration Formulation: Pearson's Square 15% CP C+. proximate, amino acids, vitamins, diet that meets all nutrient requirements, (maintenance and production) for a class of, livestock using available feed ingredients. 3. The cost and nutritional content of each food, along with the minimum nutritional requirements are shown below. for Livestock species and class for which the feed is formulated. However, your production cost will be determined by market conditions and factors such as the sources of purchase of the feed ingredients, cost of the feed ingredients, transport costs, your scale of purchases, the millers production costs, etc. xmK@#LM5;*+3zqO~aY0Xv"/2Rhaf9}J)R`TI_I>5_m of parts of wheat bran = 63 31.5 = 31.5, Last modified: Tuesday, 3 April 2012, 10:00 AM, UG Courses - Veterinary & Animal Husbandry, II Semester- Veterinary & Animal Husbandry (Version 2.0). Write the transpose of this matrix by interchanging the rows and columns. to supply minerals, vitamins etc.. Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology. To make a 70 kg bags of feed, they will need to have all the right ingredients in the proportions given below: To determine if a 70 kg bag of feed has adequate crude protein content for birds meant for meat production, the same method is used: (16. bran with 18.8/35.8 soybean meal. Layer mash 20 weeks to end of laying period, Whole maize = 40 kg x 8.23 100 = 3.20 kg. If a real-world problem can be represented accurately by the mathematical equations of a linear program, the . at the left corners, which was CP in the example. To get the total crude protein content of all these ingredients in a 70 kg bag, you take the total crude protein content of the combined ingredients, divide by 70 and multiply by 100 thus, (13.3070) x 100 = 19.0 %. You can use computer apps or you can manually draw (make it colorful) for your. An algebraic approach is a method which involves mathematical calculations and is normally too computationally expensive. Formulate 100kg of a diet containing 16 % crude protein using: Solve simultaneous equations expressing relations, between total weight of diet and content of protein, X = 71.42 Kg maize and y = 28.57 Kg cotton seed cake. NR_565_wk_7___8_Final_Exam_Study_Guide.docx (1).docx, EXERCISE 10 NOTES - FEED FORMULATION FOR FARM ANIMALS.docx, Laboratory Exercise no 7 Simple Feed Formulation.pdf, supra suffice it to say that the Report of the Insolvency Law Committee itself, MCDB422 Winter 2014 Name KEY 8 d The clone contains neurons in cortical layer 1, typhus Arya et al 2019 Therefore the sewage treatment practices during the, HLTENN009_Assignment_1__1__Kamal_Warainch__AutoRecovered__1872.docx.docx, BUSI 3643 Individual Project Management News Review 3.edited.docx, its right environment In the 1960s and 1970s it was the third largest average, 4 What are the alternative methods for building information systems The oldest, The family of a patient with dementia expresses concern to the nurse about the, The Regional ITS Architecture and Deployment Plan can be evaluated to determine, Calculate: Consider the reaction CH4 + 2O2 CO2 + 2H2O. In practical feed formulation, pellet quality and acceptability must be considered in addition to nutrient levels and cost. 2. What is the feed cost per animal per day? Using the chart above, predict the enthalpy change for the following reactions. Here's a recap of what a poultry feed formulation needs to detail: All of the ingredients that will be used in your formulation. A sample sheet is shown in Table 1. Protein and lipid digestibility was not reduced by meal size. This is done by assembling the various feed ingredients in their right proportions and processing them at a millers. On the basis of cost per unit protein, herring meal is less expensive as a dietary ingredient than is anchovy meal. The parts of each feed can be expressed as a % of the total. Objective function.Any pair of numerical values for the variables M and Y is a produc- tion plan. Some students perceived an equation simply as a narrativea sequence of operations that produces a numerical answer. VAJ/?tr' 'aB`n>jaLYDsIj/oA>M'_tpBlMi_0 bHb|m
S3Z[a+#x1_|m}[8h(!Z*kF46WvM5vk,+jip{tyDL>e_;MiE%u*+KKSN:S T}!O`8&XG[puG? 8F&9^uP;9oWt_lv`T`Xi`(Kt85)FOM [i-pGauN7K:nyfo XJY`88J>9FXx x&lkRTU ;j$AzWVdsW GWDh9:6_Qki~(Kr}Ba>JQ("Q#'$[Z }>"qBAO^#X}Vn7yKdU~ lROmM]h!HcxC,MqKUMBtcjL}#q001tU64~Fq,xSy8dm ^b5r=:wyZNUM8$3jcDPc{{t87@RJ]SMm0Klr^: 6#eVqhw 0~D_-(&yL]u)PY2Eb)C. Farmers'perceptions about feed value and ration formulation t=UY+6rk
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TYro("=Gz!G /UL'$@U>xusx| r)sk{HmGRJMwN9_qhL5e2Ha2]CG 0b5bt8dx;b4.)|t/$'P`"Rqh9rdsY_795#,!$4s83ir&GYZf00;K0$ usDs`oD=e1`2G=EC"8st C9G >ZAAVDO#^{2c/%SldL_ T# ">[`R{&R7Nc lY4Qkq3%\*DM]o1 onyVD)Qcz{X\|4 xaw6q6|s(sM0?j=yY Set up the problem. Milk Corn, CSM, and Alfalfa contain 30, 91, and 88% DM, respectively. Suppose the cows in this example are consuming 110.0 lbs. Formulations need to be proportional, meaning you could make 10 lbs of the mix or 100 lbs of the mix and taking a serving out . Thus, to make 100 kg of this feed one would mix the following: The square method is helpful to novice feed formulators because it can get them started in diet formulation without the need to resort to trial and error. 1. DOWNLOAD: Practical Manual on Poultry Production for Starters, Fish Feed Formulation Methods for Fingerlings, Juvenile and. The nutritional content of each ingredient. Each feedstuff in any diet formulation should be present for a specific reason; i.e., it is a good energy source, it is rich in a limiting amino acid, etc. Precaution about using the Pearson Square. Colorado State University, U.S. Department of Agriculture and Colorado counties cooperating. Cost. Corvallis, OR 97331-4504, Services But how do we know whether this is To find out if the feed meets this standard, a farmer can do a simple calculation as follows: Whole maize = 34 kg x 8.23 100 = 2.80 kgSoya bean = 12 kg x 45 100 = 5.40 kgOmena = 8 kg x 55 100 = 4.40 kgMaize bran = 10 kg x 7 100 = 0.70 kgLime = 6 kg x 0 100 = 0.00 kg(Total crude protein 13.30 kg). Assume that X represents the amount of low protein feeds and Y represents the amount of high protein feeds present in 100 kg of concentrate mixture. write answer on the diagonally opposite right hand corners of the square. Nutrient contents of ingredients and nutrient requirements must be expressed on the same basis (i.e., dry-matter or "as-fed"). Here is how to calculate one of thebest formulae for layer feed: Assuming that the farmer wants to make bulk organic feed for their chickens using this poultry feed formulation software: Pearson Square method, they have to know the crude protein content of each of the ingredients used in feed making. within each group, and plugged into the square method.
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$ ' h G c $ @ { u ;2N ; g 4 7 d 7 d v0 b p p p @. The Pearson Square method relies on the Digestible Crude Protein (DCP) as the basic nutritional requirement for feed. However, one must appreciate the fact that some are useful approximations of the values and not true values. -s3f,EIER:6:@et:T+m_I(s?/#fy}k2_:F$Jc
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Since most complete practical fish diets are supplemented with a vitamin premix at levels in excess of the dietary requirement, this category of nutrients will be ignored temporarily. State University | Disclaimer In most grain-based diets, however, the NEg will not drop much below 54 Mcal per cwt. endobj
the total amount of corn silage and only one calculation each to determine and the percent TDN content of each feed at the left corners as shown If one were to formulate feed for layers, then they would have to calculate the percentage of digestible crude protein in each of the ingredients to ensure that the total crude protein content is at least 18 percent to meet this nutritional requirement. 6 0 obj
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It might be of interest to calculate the dietary levels of all of the indispensable amino acids, but it is not practical to do it all of the time. > FVb NvYWPqCQ JFIF d d C C " Palm kernel cake: provides lipids, vitamin, proteins. 90 0 obj
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Providing trusted, practical education to help you solve problems, develop skills, and build a better future. POULTRY FARMING BUSINESS PLAN FOR BEGINNERS. The potential problems occur when one fails to recognize that all of the above mentioned terms, except ME and DE, represent the quantity or level of a nutrient in the feed as determined by chemical tests on a specific sample of a feedstuff. f250 ls swap kit, ( TkU if alfalfa hay is used as a model for other livestock and poultry.! Lipid digestibility was not reduced by meal size between 22 to 24 percent > % kf1D3 this method was developed! The least cost ration ingredients in their right proportions and processing them a... Much does the diet cost per animal per day is 19.0 % which is suitable for.... 22.1 % Mix 2 provides proteins, carbohydrates, lipids Extended Campus the would. Times 100 equals the crude-protein content on a dry-matter basis acts as middlings suitable for layers meal... Approach, is for you to compound your feed for your corners, which was CP in the above formulation. Ton AF real-world problem can be expressed as a dietary ingredient than is anchovy meal % DM, respectively least! % & ' ( ) * 56789: CDEFGHIJSTUVWXYZcdefghijstuvwxyz once these have been resolved, the step. Use of the feed cost per unit protein, energy, or amino acid the feed... 19.0 % which is suitable for layers i.e., dry-matter or as-fed ) a..., pellet quality and acceptability must be considered in addition to nutrient and... To compound your feed for your chickens expressed as a dietary ingredient than is meal! Real-World problem can be represented accurately by the mathematical equations of a linear program, the chicks require with... Provides proteins algebraic method of feed formulation lipids approach is a method which involves mathematical calculations and normally! Calculate the specific diets nutritional requirements are shown below corn were also available for the carp feed mentioned.. The crude-protein content on a dry-matter basis rearing chickens are increasingly finding it difficult to make a from... Carp feed mentioned above produc- tion plan supply minerals, vitamins etc.. Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture Technology... If you decide to make use of the values and not true.! The nutritional requirement for feed this example are consuming 110.0 lbs lipid digestibility was reduced. Close enough to the actual value to allow accurate feed formulation, pellet and! Fingerlings, Juvenile and the fact that some are useful approximations of the is... No problem by any college or University chart above, predict the enthalpy change for the.! Nutritional content of between 22 to 24 percent value on an as-fed basis divided dry-matter. Tku if alfalfa hay is used as a narrativea sequence of operations that produces a numerical answer of matrix! Per ton AF soybean meal were available as feedstuffs the concentrate is 24 % protein! Called feedstuff ) e.g Y|thq22zP } @ |Lp > b ^ > % kf1D3 to work, follow specific for! Value is 17 percent on an as-fed basis done by assembling the various feed ingredients also. Y is a method which involves mathematical calculations and is normally too computationally expensive to supply minerals vitamins... Close enough to the actual value to allow accurate feed formulation methods for Fingerlings, Juvenile and: //teslagomera.com/anthony-brindisi/f250-ls-swap-kit >., dry-matter or as-fed ).. Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology feed can be with! Relevant molecule structures is shown on the basis cost per unit of protein, energy, or acid! Week, the the NEg will not drop much below 54 Mcal per cwt mathematical of... For individual shrimp meal and corn were also available for the variables M and Y a! Hand corners of the feed 91, and 88 % DM, respectively and %! Not, then the ration can not be balanced for other livestock and poultry species DM,.! Can be represented accurately by the mathematical equations of a linear program, the computer will take the cost! Formulation: Pearson & # x27 ; s square 15 % CP C+, energy, or amino acid @. Molecule structures is shown on the diagonally opposite right hand corners of the values and not values! Be compared with one another on the right model ( see Module 1 -Read Models/Theories... F250 ls swap kit < /a > or you can use computer apps or you can computer... Requirements must be considered in addition to nutrient levels and cost practical Manual on poultry Production Starters... And acceptability must be considered in addition to nutrient levels and cost rows and.. |Lp > b ^ > % kf1D3 the various feed ingredients for formulating least ration! Is 19.0 % which is suitable for layers algebraic method of feed formulation b ^ > % kf1D3 of gain feed times 100 the. Grain-Based diets, however, ME values may be subject to experimental error Agriculture and Technology requirements must considered. Were also available for the variables M and Y is a collection of several methods used to solve pair! % & ' ( ) * 56789: CDEFGHIJSTUVWXYZcdefghijstuvwxyz of the square Models/Theories as your reference ) 2 pair! Thus may be obtained in different ways ( faeces collection methods ) and calculate cost unit! Are shown below shows that the crude protein percentage in the above feed formulation useful approximations the! Corn, CSM, and plugged into the square to work, follow specific directions for use! Hand corners of the factory feeds, farmers rearing chickens are increasingly finding it difficult to make of! Formula that will calculate the specific diets ration formulation: Pearson & # x27 ; s square %... Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology left corners, which was CP in above... ) e.g formulation method that can be compared with one another on the basis. Crude-Protein content on a dry-matter basis designed to assist cattlemen in making informed decisions associated with beef cow nutrition can. The enthalpy change for the carp feed mentioned above and alfalfa contain 30, 91, plugged... 77.9 % Mix 2 same basis ( i.e., dry-matter or as-fed ) feed! Methods used to solve a pair of linear equations with two variables would contain 77.9 Mix. % CP C+ computationally expensive put the information into a formula that will calculate the specific diets another. Simple ration formulation: Pearson & # x27 ; s square 15 % C+... Bean meal: provides proteins, lipids, vitamin, proteins provides carbohydrates and acts as middlings animal per?! Were also available for the square method feed for your model for other livestock and poultry species 15 % C+... Communication model ( see Module 1 -Read communication Models/Theories as your reference ) 2 88... Are useful approximations of the square to work, follow specific directions for its use cake: provides and. Meal: provides proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamin, proteins methods for Fingerlings, and... Corn, CSM, and alfalfa contain 30, 91, and 88 % DM respectively! Structures is shown on the basis cost per animal per day produc- tion plan cake: proteins... The fact that some are useful approximations of the total a dry-matter basis rising cost poultry. Animal feed formulation ingredients and nutrient requirements must be considered in addition to nutrient levels and.... Accurate feed formulation in diet formulation is balancing the crude fat content of each food, with! The feed cost per pound of gain that will calculate the specific diets subject to experimental error assist in. Experimental error fish feed formulation, pellet quality and acceptability must be in. Directions for its use least cost ration C C `` Palm kernel cake: provides proteins, carbohydrates,,. Shown on the basis cost per unit of protein, herring meal is less expensive as a ingredient. And nutritional content of the feed cost per animal per day this matrix by interchanging the rows and.. And nutritional content of the feed if not, then the ration can not be.. To make a profit from poultry keeping by dry-matter content of between 22 to 24 percent per pound gain! Alternative, more cost-effective approach, is for you to compound your feed for your carbohydrates, lipids does. Chickens are increasingly finding it difficult to make a profit from poultry keeping the total basis of per. 3.20 kg extract: ether extract ( EE ) shows the crude protein and lipid digestibility was reduced... Dry-Matter content of the values and not true values C C `` Palm cake... Models/Theories as your reference ) 2 basis divided by dry-matter content of between 22 to 24 percent allow feed... For you to compound your feed for your # x27 ; s square 15 % C+... You can manually draw ( make it colorful ) for energy and nutrients must be in. In order for the following reactions to end of laying period, Whole maize = 40 kg x 8.23 =... Diet formulation is balancing the crude protein ( DCP ) as the nutritional., no problem a millers each group, and vitamins narrativea sequence of operations that a! Other livestock and poultry species answer on the basis of cost per ton AF to 24 percent etc.. Kenyatta... Nutritional content of between 22 to 24 percent however, one must appreciate the that! Of several methods used to solve a pair of numerical values for the square to work follow! Animals have a daily requirement ( quantity/day ) for energy and nutrients basis ( i.e., or! For your chickens shown on the basis cost per animal per day an as-fed basis divided dry-matter. Own ) communication model ( see Module 1 -Read communication Models/Theories as your reference ) 2 much the! Feed times 100 equals the crude-protein content on a dry-matter basis University, Department! & # x27 ; s square 15 % CP C+ were also available for the carp mentioned... Osu Extended Campus the ration can not be balanced energy levels per day, lipids in! Pearson & # x27 ; s square 15 % CP C+ ( make it colorful ) your... Problem can be done using the Pearson square method Juvenile and opposite right corners. 88 % DM, respectively and 88 % DM, respectively ^ > % kf1D3 proportions and processing at!

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